Sunday, May 24, 2020
List possible diagnosis. AXIS I: The most probable diagnosis from Axis I would be Bipolar I disorder, single manic episode, with mood congruent psychotic features. The client also presents some symptoms of delusional disorder and schizoaffective disorder, put the presence or absence of certain features rule these diagnoses out. AXIS II: No personality disorder is evident. AXIS III: The client does not present with any relevant or associated medical condition. AXIS IV: The client has not experienced any major psychosocial stressor lately that would contribute to the presenting symptoms. AXIS V: On the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the client would score somewhere in the range of 21 30. Rationale: Provide reasoning for the diagnosis. The symptoms presented by the client are characteristic of Bipolar I disorder with single manic episode. The defining features of this diagnosis are a single manic episode with no history of major depressive episodes. The manic episode is characterized by a distinct and persistent period of abnormal mood that is elevated and expansive that lasts for at least one week. The most prominent features of the manic episode presented by the client include a sense of grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, increased talkativeness, and an increase in behavior that is goal directed. This manic episode has caused disruption in the clients professional life, and the symptoms are not a result of physiological effects from anyShow MoreRelatedShould Bipolar Disorder Be Diagnosed? Children?1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Should Bipolar Disorder be Diagnosed in Children? Emily Gell Brookdale Community College Manic depression disorder, more commonly known today as bipolar disorder, is a mental illness that can affect any age, race, or gender. It is not prejudiced, and has a grim prognosis if the symptoms are not treated or controlled in some fashion. Bipolar disorder is, by Boris Birmaher as the presence of recurrent episodes of mania or hypomania with and without episodes of depression (BirmaherRead MoreA Family Member Or Friend Who Suffers From Bipolar Disorder?1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDo you know a family member or friend who suffers from Bipolar Disorder? Jessica was one of my friends from College, during college she was an outstanding student, she was always on time with assignments, no absences, and on top of the class. Everything in her room and study papers were extremely organized, but sometimes she last days with insomnia and cried without motive. Her parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ divorce cause a terrible impact in her family, the doctors diagnosed her mom with major depression. After coll egeRead MoreEarly Onset Of The Disorder952 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBipolar, or manic-depression, is a mood disorder that is typically diagnosed during mid teenage years to early adulthood. Many people believe that mid teen years are the earliest a diagnosis can be made, however the disorder can be diagnosed in early childhood. Early onset of the disorder is often much more severe, and is harder to treat. The possible causes for early onset are similar to those of late onset. Symptoms are also similar, however those in early onset can be more serious. Diagnosis ofRead MoreBipolar Disorder And Nursing : Bipolar Disorders1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDellisa Gordon Clinical Symposium April 27, 2016 Bipolar Disorder and Nursing The central focus of this paper will be Bipolar disorder and how it relates to nursing. Bipolar disorder can be classified into two sections: bipolar I and bipolar II. Bipolar I involves periods of potentially unprovoked mood swings from mania to depression (Joseph Goldberg, 2014). Bipolar II is a less harsh form of mood elevation, causing milder episodes of hypomania that may alternate with spurts of deep depressionRead MoreBipolar Disorder : Symptoms And Symptoms1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeople may think that having bipolar disorder means that anyone with the disorder are just simply put, Ã¢â¬Å"crazyÃ¢â¬ , I was one of those people but the meanings of those two things couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t possibly be any more different. Bipolar disorder is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"A disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs.Ã¢â¬ (google.com) Ã¢â¬Å"Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness with recurring episodes of mania and depressionÃ¢â¬ (nami.org). Ã¢ â¬Å"The term Ã¢â¬Å"bipolarÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â which means Ã¢â¬Å"two polesÃ¢â¬ signifyingRead MoreChildren With Bipolar Disorder : The National Institute Of Mental Health1590 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesResearch Essay Professor Wissman November 5, 2015 Children with Bipolar Disorder The National Institute of Mental Health has defined bipolar disorder as a serious mental illness that is marked by extreme changes in mood that range between two states: manic and depressive. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is classified as a mood disorder. This disorder goes beyond the typical ups and downs. Bipolar disorder is becoming more prevalent and a much more serious medical conditionRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Bipolar Disorder928 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Bipolar disorder is a depressive illness that effects the brain that causes shifts in mood and the ability to carry out daily tasks. There are multiple classifications of the types of the disorder that range from extremely elated moods (manic phases) to extremely sad moods (depressive phases). The different episodes classify Bipolar disorder into type one or type two. Bipolar one disorder is classified as mania episodes that last at least a week and are usually followed by depressive episodes thatRead MoreBipolar Disorder And Its Effects On Children1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfrom Bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder or manic-depressive illness is a brain disorder that can affect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mood and ability to complete tasks. Bipolar disorder in children is under studied for many reasons. These include, lack of awareness and the difference in the disease seen in adults and children that can make it difficult to continue studies. Bipolar disorder has not been well studied despite harmful effects on growth and development in a child. As the child grows up, bipolar disorder mayRead MoreCase Conceptualization : Silver Linings Playbook1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSolatano after his release from a psychiatric hospital. Pat had, after he caught his wife with another man, beat that man severely. As part of a deal with the court, he was placed in a mental health facility for treatment and was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. After his release, he was not concerned with his condition and was more preoccupied with his ex-wife, Nicki. Pat initially continued to struggle with his condition after his release and would not take his medication. However, in his attemptsRead MorePsychiatric Concept Of Bipolar Disorder1312 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBipolar Disorder (Neel Burton M.D. 2012) suggests the modern psychiatric concept of bipolar disorder originated during the nineteenth century. However, in his excerpt Ã¢â¬Å"A Short History of Bipolar DisorderÃ¢â¬ , (Neel Burton M.D. 2012) writes that the relationship between melancholy and mania dates back to the Ancient Greeks. According to the excerpt Jules Baillarger and Jean-Pierre Falret presented their descriptions to the Academie de Medicine, both of which used the term insanity in their descriptions
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
1.0. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Problem indication Nigeria is unique and embellished with a very rich culture and diversities. Because of the multi-ethnic and socio-cultural background that Nigeria is known for, the work environment in this setting is still far from what the western organizational system operates in. Beliefs, ethnic background, stereotypic way of work ethics and level of exposure seems to all play a key role in the way employers, managers would want their employees to engage in the task assigned to them. Crafting of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s job or making self-initiated changes to the boundaries of job tasks by Wrezesniewski Dutton (2001) which is a newer concept mostly explored in the west is perceived as an idea that is unacceptable in someÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These includes but not limited to brain drain, erosion of university autonomy, obsolete job designs, lack of proper funding for infrastructural buildings and obsolete research equipment, decreasing quality. Globalization is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that drives most of the changes in the educational system (Obioma, 2011). In the world of today, globalization makes borderless education or what is referred to as transnational border to develop new international partnerships and networks (Zelza, 2005). However, this could be said to have made a little in-road into some of the university educational systems but not fully. Nigerian university educational systems and structures are still based on a centuries old system of knowledge organization, largely influenced by 19th century academic traditions. The federal character principle which the government introduced for appointing, recruiting of individuals into various organizations to allow for equal representation across the six geo-political zones of the federation is also not completely free from tribalism and socio-cultural displays and ethnicity, religion, stereotypic ways of work ethics of the active players in the educational sector (Ebijuwa, 1999). Furthermore, all these seems to play key roles in the way Management, Head of Departments, would want their workers and subordinates to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
One of the ways in which sociologists theorize deviance is through the control theory. This theory was first pioneered by Travis Hirschi in 1969. The control theory suggests that a person who does commit serious crimes is free of any emotional, social feelings and for those that do not commit crimes are able to control themselves to not commit crimes and behave in an acceptable manner in society without being a danger to others. We will write a custom essay sample on Deviance and Crime (Sociology) or any similar topic only for you Order Now Basically, this theory emphasizes that a person from birth is capable of acting in criminal behaviour, but the social factors affect a person from committing criminal acts or not. Within this theory there are four factors in which someone will not commit in any deviant behaviour. These factors are attachment, commitment, involvement and belief . Attachment applies to affection that a person has for their parents or friends, etc. and does not want to disappoint or hurt by involving themselves into delinquent behaviour. Commitment is used to describe what a person has to lose when they involve themselves in committing crimes, etc. such as having a high standing in society or whether they are in school or are employed. Involvement refers to the amount of time a person invests in something that keeps them busy such as any extracurricular activities, for example, which would prevent them from having the time to commit crimes. The final factor belief refers to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s own belief system and whether or not they choose to follow societal rules and that if they do believe in these rules, they would be less likely to act in a deviant manner. These bonds that are presented by Hirschi are meant to represent that they control our behaviour through social contraventions and are not necessarily laws that are within our society. Basically, this theory best describes the reasons in which deviance is theorized because it takes into effect all of the reasons in which a person would or would not act in a deviant manner. The four bonds that were mentioned above highlight the factors that are important in almost everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and that if any of those are missing in our lives, it would lead us to act in devious ways. An example in which describes the way in which these social bonds can present hemselves when they are no longer there are described in the article Ã¢â¬Å"Key Idea: HirschiÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Bond/Social Control TheoryÃ¢â¬ when they describe how a person would still stop at a stop sign in the middle of nowhere with no other traffic and no police cars observing. This is a good example because it shows that a person is still worried about any possible implications that a bad decision would affect them. The control theory is a theory, which could best to explain deviance and why people act in a d eviant manner. The reason why is that the manner in which people are raised and who they are surrounded by. For example, someone does not commit any crimes because of the fact that they have family and friends and conform to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s rules so that they could continue to have the bonds that they have with their friends and family, but when that bond is broken, that leaves room for the person to partake in deviant acts. Some of the weaknesses that can be pointed out in this factor could be that some delinquents who are underage could possibly have less parental supervision and that they would be free to experiment with different things whether it is illegal or not. Another weakness in this theory is that a person is not essentially capable of committing criminal acts from birth, but there are events in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life where they need or want to involve themselves in criminal acts. This theory is the better theory when describing deviance. This is the better theory because it takes into effect most of the reasons why a person would or would not take part in deviant behaviour. The four social bonds that are described within this theory are things that a person would hold dear and would not jeopardize these relationships or beliefs and feelings by partaking in criminal or deviant behaviour. How to cite Deviance and Crime (Sociology), Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: You are employed as a junior analyst by 'MFSAD', a new enterprise developing business systems. You have been asked to write a report that discusses the importance of a feasibility study in the analysis of a system. You are to include discussion on: 1. What is a feasibility study and its role within the analysis/investigation of a system. 2. The components of a feasibility report. 3. Feasibility criteria and their impact on an investigation. 4. Fact finding tchniques employed in the analysis. Answer: Feasibility Study Feasibility study is the analysis of a problem that occurs in a system and determining the effective solution of the problem. For conducting a feasibility study some fields of study must be taken into consideration. These fields are economical, operational and technical fields of the system. It is important to study the feasibility of a system to know the outcome that can be obtained from the system. It is a process of analyzing the problems that are going to be faced in conducting a project and check the possibility of solving the problems. It is a method through which it is seen that whether a project or a system will work or not, the benefits and cost of the project and can the computing system be technically constructed. Need or purpose of feasibility study by the entrepreneurs After developing a business plan or concept the next step that must be taken is to check the feasibility of the plan (Issa and Flood, 2014). For doing this the entrepreneurs goes for few questioning about the outcome of the business concept and the future aspect of the project on which they are planning to invest. Hence, through a feasibility study it is determined that the project is demographically possible or not (Goto et al., 1999). Therefore it helps the entrepreneurs to know about the future risk of the project and also helps in further decision taking (McCarty, 1969). Feasibility questions for the survey and development While conducting a feasibility study for a computing system few questions comes into mind of the entrepreneurs, to know, whether or not the system is suitable for investment. These questions are as follows (Exemplary feasibility study of chiropractic, 2000): What are the actual services rendered by the system? The target customers for whom the system is made for. What is the benefit or outcome of the project for the organization? How to bring the product or service in the market for sale? Role of feasibility report in analysis of the system The main role of feasibility study is described in the points below (Needham and Herbert, 1982): It helps to know the future aspect of a project or a business plan. It helps to know the cost and benefits of a project. It helps to know the risk that may occur while conducting the project and the possible way of overcoming the risks. It helps to know whether the project is technically possible or not. Component of feasibility report After conducting feasibility study of a system a feasibility report is made to represent the outcome of the study made on the system that helps the audience of the report to take proper decision regarding the system. A feasibility report has several components that are discussed in details in the points given below (Scheurer, 1994): Executive Summary The executive summary contains the brief discussion about the entire project that is presented at the beginning of the report. It is max of two to three pages and the main points discussed in the report are presented in this heading (Sobhani and Najimi, 2014). In other words it can be said that it includes the entire discussion of the project in short. It provides the audience with an idea that what has been discussed in the entire report and how the study has been conducted. Background information of the organization: In this section the background of the organization for which the report is conducted is described. This includes the summary of the background information of the organization, information about the stakeholders of the organization, the name; address, each and every details of the organization that is mandatory for conducting the entire feasibility report (Wolf, 2001). It is important because to know the feasibility of a project it is important to know the organizer of the project. Proposed system or plan: This section is the largest portion of the feasibility report that is used to describe the proposed plans for system or project that is to be made in the future (T. El-Madany et al., 2012). This section includes many components that are discussed to know the feasibility of the project. Some of the important components of this section are discussed below: Description of the plan: The description of the plan is the brief idea of the project that is to be conducted. It includes the entire proposal and business concept that the entrepreneurs want to be checked and examined. The entire analysis is made on this proposal and the outcome is represented in the report. Advantage and disadvantage of the plan: This section includes the pros and cons of the proposal and describes how the system in beneficial or negatively effective for the organization. In this section the advantages and the disadvantages of conducting the project is discussed and the risk of the project is also mentioned in this section. Cost of the plan or proposed system: In this section the cost of conducting the project is analyzed and the cost is compared with the budget to know whether the project is possible for the organization or not. The cost of the project is also compared with the outcome profit of the project to know that the project is beneficial for the organization or not. Comparison of current and proposed situation Here in this section the current situation of the organization is compared with the proposed situation to know the benefits of the project. It helps the stakeholders of the organization to take decision regarding the approval of the project. Project schedule: The project schedule includes all information about the timing fixed for each work to be conducted while completing the proposal and the time boundary for completing the proposed plan is evaluated to know the feasibility of the system (Yang and Ma, 2013). Final recommendation: The final recommendation about the feasibility of the proposed system or plan is presented in this section that helps the organization to take proper decision regarding the project. It helps the management team to know whether any changes in needed to be made, or what are the possibilities of the proposed plans. Feasibility criteria For conducting feasibility study for a system the basic feasibility criteria are as follows (Calyam et al., 2014): 1. Technology: This checks whether the computing system is technically possible or not. What are the technical problems that may occur while making the system and whether the problems can be minimized or not. 2. Operational: As per these criteria it is checked that whether or not the project will operate to fulfill the desire of the organization and provide outcome as per the requirement of the organization. 3. Schedule: This checks the time constraints of making the computing system and sees whether or not the project can be completed as per the planned schedule. 4. Economic: This criterion deals with the cost and benefits of the proposed project and sees the future valuation of the project for the benefit of the organization (Danhof and Smith, 1981). 5. Legal: As per this criterion it is checked that the project or proposal is legally approved or not. What are the legal issues related with the proposal of the system and how this issues can be solved for completion of the project. 6. Social: As per this criterion the social effects of the proposed plan is checked. It is seen that how the project effects the environment and the society. Impact of feasibility study Feasibility study is conducted on pre-conduction of the proposed plan or project. It is not always totally correct and there remains a chance of miscommunication in this study. The analysis is done on only the proposal which is different from that of real situation. The real situation can be less or more adverse. But in most cases this study is highly helpful for the management team to take a proper decision. The main impact of the study is an increase in the budget of the organization because of the cost incurred for conducting the feasibility analysis. But it is generally helpful in nature in most of the cases. References Calyam, P., Berryman, A., Welling, D., Mohan, S., Ramnath, R. and Ramnathan, J. (2014). VDPilot: feasibility study of hosting virtual desktops for classroom labs within a federated university system.IJCC, 3(2), p.158. Danhof, K. and Smith, C. (1981).Computing system fundamentals. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. Exemplary feasibility study of chiropractic. (2000).Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 5(1), pp.31-32. Goto, H., Sugiura, T., Harada, Y. and Kazui, T. (1999). Feasibility of using the automatic generating system for quartz watches as a leadless pacemaker power source.Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 37(3), pp.377-380. Issa, R. and Flood, I. (2014).Computing in civil and building engineering. Reston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers. McCarty, D. (1969).Feasibility study. Washington: National Center for Educational Research and Development [for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.]. Needham, R. and Herbert, A. (1982).The Cambridge distributed computing system. London: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. Scheurer, T. (1994).Foundations of computing. Wokingham, England: Addison-Wesley. Sobhani, J. and Najimi, M. (2014). Numerical study on the feasibility of dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system for approximation of compressive strength of dry-cast concrete.Applied Soft Computing, 24, pp.572-584.
Friday, March 27, 2020
Abortion Abortion is the worst thing a woman can do against human dignity. It is a crime against life. No woman has the right to kill a new living being. Many countries ban abortion and many institutions fight against it. Abortion is immoral and it should not be legalized. Abortion is also a threat to the mother's health. A woman can suffer an infection or internal bleeding. She could also become sterilized, the permanent inhability to bear a child. Abortion not only kills the baby but may kill the mother too. During an abortion, despite the use of local anesthesia, 97% of the women report severe pain, and if a more powerful drug is used she could suffer dangerous side effects. Many complications are common after an abortion, like inflammation of the reproductive organs. As well, there is strong evidence that abortion increases the risk of breast cancer. Women that abort increase their chances of getting breast cancer by 50%, and teenagers with no previous pregnancies that abort after the 8th week increase their probability by 80%. Unicef states that 250,000 women die every year because of legal and illegal abortions: 75,000 of them die of self-inflicted abortions; 75,000 die of convulsions; and the other 100,000 die of blood poisoning caused by an infection of the uterus. Therefore, if abortion is legalized there will be not only more fetal murders but also more mothers will die. None of the methods women use to abort are completly safe. One of the most common methods used is Suction Aspiration. The doctor uses a special tool to suck the baby into a collection bottle. Great care must be taken to prevent the uterus from being damaged, which would cause hemorrhage. A woman with hemorrhage will need a blood transfusion that could cause her AIDS. Also infection may easily occur if fetal tissue is left behind in the uterus. Another method used for babies as old as twenty four weeks, is the Dilation and Evacuation. Sharp jaws are used to grasp different parts of the unborn baby which are then torn away. The skull of the baby must be crushed to facilitate the procedure. Another technique used by a lot of pregnant women is the RU486. The RU486 are pills used to abort the undesired child. These pills have very dangerous side effects. They could cause severe bleeding, nausea, vomiting, pain, and even death. In France a woman died because of this drug while others suffered life threatning heart attacks. Also RU486 can cause severe malformations in later pregnancies. Therefore the baby is not the only one that is endangered. The baby's mother not only has to deal with physical consequences, but also psychological problems that could last for a lifetime. Women that abort usually suffer severe traumas. Once, a woman was rapped by five men. She didn't want to have the child, but her pain and embarrasment were so great that she couldn't abort until the last month. She is still in psychological treatment. Psychologist Wanda Franz states, "Women feel worthless because they failed at the most natural of human activities, the role of being a mother." Women report horrible nightmares of children calling them from a trash can full of body parts and blood. Surgical abortions aren't as traumatic as chemical abortions. Women having chemical abortions often see the complete tiny bodies of their babies and are even able to distinguish the developing hands and eyes. So traumatic is this for some future mothers that it is recommended that women that are not prepared for this, do not take the drug. Researchers call these phychological problems the Post Abortion Syndrome (PAS). Women that suffer from PAS experience drug and alcohol abuse, personal relationship problems, repeated abortions, and even suicide. Of all the women that abort, 56% feel guilty and suffer PAS. In the United States there are over 3000 Pregnancy Crisis Centers which help women that are facing unplanned pregnancies. They make the future mothers realize that her baby deserves to have the chance of living. They tell them that if they can't support the baby then she could give it up for adoption but not kill him. Do women have the right to steal the life of a new living being? Killing a person is illegal, so why should a fetal murder be legal? You have to ask yourself these questions and realize that when a woman aborts, she is acting like any other murderer. Researchers have discovered that life begins at the moment of conception in the mother's uterus,
Friday, March 6, 2020
Postwar Petroleum Order Post-1945, there emerged an international oil establishment named the postwar petroleum order. Before 1939, the output of petroleum in the Middle Eastern countries was not high and the region contributed only a marginal share to the world petroleum production.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Postwar Petroleum Order specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Before the postwar years, British Petroleum (BP) was the dominant player in the petroleum market however, after the war, five American companies broke BPÃ¢â¬â¢s monopoly. This postwar order was characterized by a corporate consolidation of the major oil companies in the Middle East. The primary aim of the order was to maximize the production of petroleum in the Persian Gulf and supply the increased postwar energy requirement of the Europe (Citino 137). By 1948, United States had become one of the major importers of petroleum from the Middle Eastern countries. The era of C old War diplomacy saw a rise in the energy requirement of the country, which made the rich oil resources of the Gulf indispensable to the endeavor (Painter Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 489). The oil from the gulf was important as this provided a cheap source to help reconstructing the damage World War II had done on Europe. Further, defending the tattered Europe after the war was essential to guarantee development in the US. The postwar petroleum order consisted of a tangible infrastructure resource to deliver oil to the European countries. The only infrastructure that supported the petroleum order then was the Suez Canal, and two other pipelines in the Middle East (Citino 137). The political volatility of the Middle East in the postwar years only created greater problems for the petroleum order. Further, the creation of Israel in 1948 only added to the problems of the order as the Arab League members were skeptical of the Jewish nation and created a state embargo on supplying p etroleum to the Western countries.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the postwar petroleum order, marred by volatility in oil supply due to regional conflict and political condition of the Gulf, was annihilated. Thus, post 1970s the United States under the administration of President Bush started diversifying the oil sources. This ended the postwar petroleum order to bring forth a new order. This paper probes into the postwar petroleum order. Initially the paper will concentrate on delineating the reasons behind rise of the post petroleum order and the reasons that contributed to their downfall. The paper will then discuss what the new petroleum order was and the reasons why this order came into being. Then drawing from the reasons of rise and demise of postwar petroleum order, the paper will try to intuitively understand the probable fate of the new order. Ris e and Fall of the Postwar Petroleum Order One of the key outcomes of the World War II was postwar control over natural resources (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 486). The prewar and postwar petroleum order saw a marked coalition between the United States and Great Britain to control the production and supply of oil in the market in order maintain stability in the oil market. In 1944, the two countries were signatories of the Petroleum Agreement, which formally established the joint control over the oil resources of the Gulf. Thus, the emergence of an Anglo-American collaboration created a postwar oil order (Citino 139). As early as 1933, Standard Oil of California had signed agreement with the King of Saudi Arabia, as the US oil companies were skeptical of the influence of the United Kingdom over the Saudi oil reserves due to the financial constraints of the Arab king. In 1943, the US government survey pointed out that the Middle East had become the Ã¢â¬Å"center of gravi tyÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"world oil productionÃ¢â¬ was Ã¢â¬Å"shifting from the Gulf-Caribbean region to the Middle EastÃ¢â¬ (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 493).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Postwar Petroleum Order specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Before World War II, the US government provided diplomatic support to the private US companies like Standard Oil Company of California and Texas Company, to receive concession in foreign countries. However, with the end of the war, the US government entered into an agreement with Britain to collaborate and not compete in pursuing the oil resources in Middle East. However, this Anglo-American oil agreement was opposed by private US companies, who feared would reduce oil prices, due to cheap imports from Gulf due to government intervention (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 493). These issues were believed to be strong by a few members of the Cong ress, which resulted in a return to the Open Door diplomacy where private companies would operate in security, and profitably as government, initiative was limited to indirect involvement with oil matters in the Gulf. However, the US government had to take an active interest in the volatile political situation in the Middle East due to rise in Islamic nations. During the World War II, Iran was occupied by the erstwhile USSR and the UK. Strategic analysts believed Iran to be vital for both the US and the USSR due to the critical geopolitical location of the country and its abundant oil resources. Right after the war, in the early forties, Iran too wanted to attract US oil companies in order ease the influence of the USSR and Britain. US on the other hand, wanted to remove foreign influence and military occupancy in Iran, sought to influence the Iranian government to recover the natural resources. The Truman Doctrine helped the US established its control over the northern region of Ir an, Turkey, and Greece, therefore, establishing control over the eastern parts of the Mediterranean and Middle East (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 495). This helped the country to retain control over the oil resources in the Middle East and prevented the entry of the USSR in the region. The reason for this political move of the US was vested with two intent Ã¢â¬â first was to ease off the balance of payment problems of the country through increasing business of oil through US companies in the US, and second, keeping the Soviet out of Middle East thus, establishing control, in order to establish a military base, which can launch an attack on Soviet Russia in the event of a war (Citino 140).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was the time when there occurred all the Ã¢â¬Å"great oil dealsÃ¢â¬ in order to secure the expansion of the oil supply in Middle and Near East. The result of this was the formation of the private system of an international production management that helped in oil production in Middle East and its incorporation with the global market. The US government strategically gained control over half of the oil share in Middle East by coordinating with the large private oil companies and the oil rich Arab nations. The postwar petroleum order was a profitable venture for the US oil companies and a political and strategic success for the US until the formation of Palestine in 1947. President Truman supported the UN plan to partition Palestine into two parts and recognize the state of Israel was the first step to offend the Arab partners. This created an opening for the USSR to enter the Middle Eastern oil industry in 1950 and 1960s. This helped in the expansion of the automobile industry in Western Europe and Japan in between 1950 and 1970 (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 498). The main issue with the arrangement of the west with the Middle East arose with the rise of the question of limiting western military capability in the Middle East and the declining power of Britain. The main issue that the US faced strategically was not military threat from the USSR, rather the growth of anti-Western feeling and Islamic nationalism in the Middle East. This instilled a fear among the US policymakers that this rise of Arab nationalism could facilitate the expansion of the Soviet in the region. Both Britain and the US wanted retain control over the Middle Eastern oil resources for strategic reasons, but disagreed on the nature of diplomacy to be used to counter the rise of nationalism in the region (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 499). The US was in favor of meeting the demand of the nationalists of higher share in profits from the oil industry as long as they did not post a threat to the US strategic control and the operations of the private corporate in the Middle East. On the other hand, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s balance of payment was more dependent on the oil revenues from the Gulf and therefore, was reluctant to give into the demand of the nationalists. The Anglo-Iranian oil venture was critical for Britain as this was its most important overseas investment and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s balance of payment was largely dependent on it (Painter, Ã¢â¬Å"Oil, Resources, and the Cold WarÃ¢â¬ 499). United States too shared similar apprehensions regarding the rising Arab nationalism but it was more concerned with the effect the forceful reverse-nationalization in Gulf by Britain would have on the emerging turmoil in Iran (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 499). The US believed any adverse move by the British would undermine the position of the Iranian shah enhancing the position of the pro-Soviet Tudeh party, and may result in an interven tion from within the region. The nationalization of the Suez Canal by the Egyptian nationalist leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser, created problems for the passage of oil from the Gulf to the West, as the canal was the chief passage for the western companies. To worsen the situation, Britain along with France and Israel developed a plan to gain control over the canal and avenge NasserÃ¢â¬â¢s action through military retaliation. Due to this, Syria and Saudi Arabia stopped their supply of oil to these countries. Britain and France believed that the US would help them by supplying oil during the war torn years. However, President Eisenhower refused to provide petroleum to Britain and France and threatened to cut away all aid to Israel if they did not refrain from the attack. This strong pressure from the US government helped to stop the impending war, and major oil companies supplied Europe with oil as long as the canal did not open. The Suez crisis was a burning example to the western world the rising Arab nationalism posed to the western world. Thus, it altogether was a threat to US plans to rebuild Western Europe with the oil from the Gulf. Nasser pushed the cause of Arab nationalism to gain control of their oil resources and use to further political agenda of the Middle East. The main aim was to reduce western dominance in their oil resources, economic development of the Arab nations who were not rich in natural resources, and annihilation of Israel (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 501). The fear was surmounted due the mutual distrust between the USSR and the US. The latter constantly feared that turmoil in the Middle East would open the doors for the Soviet and their allies to take control over the oil rich region, adding to their military and economic position. The US was always skeptical of the Soviet influence in the region, and therefore, Eisenhower helped the rise of the conservative Islamists in the region to drive away communism and nationalism fr om the region (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 500). The key rout through which oil was marketed to the Western Europe was through Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 501). For formation of the United Arab Republic through the joining of Syria and Egypt in 1958 only created additional problem to the oil route. Further, a coup on the pro-west monarchy of Iraq through a nationalist revolution in July 1958 created additional problems. US assumed NasserÃ¢â¬â¢s interference in the coup but refrained from any military retaliation, as it would have destabilized the situation further. However, the leaders of the nationalist party who helped the coup, agreed to respect the agreement with US and Britain regarding oil supply from the country (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 502). Both the western countries sent army to Lebanon and Jordan, to reestablish control over the region (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 502). Howeve r, the possibility of communist control of Iraq and other Middle Eastern countries posed a special problem, especially during the Cold War era. Iraq posed a threat to the Arab nationalism and garnered support from Britain who viewed Nasser of Egypt as a greater threat. However, the US believed that communist inclination of the Iraqis could pose a greater threat to the volatile condition of the Middle East and by extension to the oil issue of the west. With the disassociation of General Abd aI-Karim Qasim from the Baghdad Pact and his increasing association with the Iraqi Communist Party created further drift between Nasser and Qasim (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 502). In 1961, after Kuwait gained sovereignty, Qasim declared that Kuwait was a part of Iraq. Kuwait being the fourth largest oil producing country was the largest supplier to Britain (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 503). If Kuwait was to become a part of Iraq, it would be an unprofitable situation f or Britain and US, and so they sent troops to Kuwait to safeguard the country from Iraqi attack (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 503). The Arab League quickly followed suit with troops from Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and United Arab Emirates, thus helping in successful evacuation of troops from Kuwait, yet maintain control over their stakes in KuwaitÃ¢â¬â¢s oil resoruces (Painter, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 503). The US along with Britain aimed to annihilate the rising power of Qasim and the communist party in Iraq, and therefore brought forth the Bath Party in 1963. With the formation of the Organization of Petroleum Producing Countries (OPEC) consisting of the major oil producing and exporting countries like Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, and Venezuela in Baghdad in 1960 (Painter Oil, Resources, and the Cold War 504). OPEC gained power over the prices of oil in the international market, reducing the dominance of the western oil companies to control the internationa l oil prices; it was greatly detrimental to the goals of Arab nationalism. Further, the breaking up of the United Arab Republic and the building of super tanks that could bypass the Suez Canal created further impediment on the nationalist agenda. Thus, it was in the 1960s that the fears of any further soviet take over of the Middle Eastern oil, almost subsided. The New Oil Order The postwar petroleum order thus, emerged through a continuous process of political diplomacy in the Middle East which primarily aimed at gaining control over the oil resources by the US and Britain. The US employed soft diplomacy to control the oil resources of the Middle East and their desire to keep communism away from the region led to various event, which eventually led to the demise of the order. The aim of the US and Britain was simply to establish themselves as the leaders in oil production in the world during the postwar era (Painter, Ã¢â¬Å"Oil and the American CenturyÃ¢â¬ 24-26). Some critics o f American policy believe that the soft political approach of America to intervene in the Middle Eastern issues and the creation of the postwar oil order was simply a vehicle to establish American hegemony in the world (Kubursi and Mansur 8). Britain was completely out of the political scenario by 1979, when after the gradual fall of the appeal of the Arab nationalists, there arose a wave of Islamist allegiance in the Middle East. The Suez crisis in 1957 clearly demonstrated that the US would not deter from using force on Middle East if there was a need for it, as was pointed out by President Eisenhower in 1957: Ã¢â¬Å"I think you have, in the analysis presented in the letter, proved that should a crisis arise threatening to cut the Western world off from the Mid East oil, we would have to use force.Ã¢â¬ (Kubursi and Mansur 8). This point of view came into effect almost two decades later in the conflict between the USSR and US on Afghan soil, after the fall of the shah of Iran to the rising Islamic forces. Many believe that hegemonic control over the Middle Eastern oil remains the source of global power for the US (Kubursi and Mansur 9). Thus, the picture became clearer in 1973 when OPEC quadrupled the prices of oil in the wake of Israel-Arab conflict (Kubursi and Mansur 9). Critics of American hegemony in Middle East have pointed out that the Gulf War orchestrated against Iraq in the nineties was aimed at establishing democracy in an authoritarian rule of Saddam Hussein and the western intervention aimed to safeguard Kuwait from the autocratic, illegal, invasion but the a means to control over the Kuwaiti oil resources (Frank 268). Had the intentions of the western allies and champions of democracy been pure they would have waged similar war against South Africa for continued apartheid policy, or IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s invasion of Iran, or the USSRÃ¢â¬â¢s invasion in Afghanistan (Frank 268). Thus, evidently the reason was oil and managing some other domestic econ omic problems (Frank 271). Iraq was also trying to handle the economic pressure that oil industry had posed on its economy due to the recession (Billion 691). The oil politics shaped the foreign policy of the US in the postwar era. The petroleum order then created was through soft politics, which established the private, oil companies from the US to have control over petroleum from the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oil rich regions. However, with the Gulf War, political and military volatility, and increasing dependence of the US on the oil resources of the Middle East created major economic problems for US. Further, the rise of OPEC as a monopolistic controller of the oil supplies globally also posed a major problem to the hegemonic control of the US over the oil resources. This led to the establishment of the new oil order by the Bush administration to maintain their supremacy and continue the flow of oil to the western hemisphere. The aim of the US was to look for new oil rich regions that woul d become sources of cheap oil. However, the lessons from the past history of the control over oil has led to believe that even if initial control can be established over the poor, but oil rich regions, eventually they emerge as a force in the world politics undermining the hegemony of the west. Billion, Phhillipe Le. Corruption, Reconstruction and Oil Governance in Iraq. Third World Quarterly 26.4-5 (2005): 685 Ã¢â¬â 703. Print. Citino, Nathan J. Defending the Ã¢â¬Ëpostwar petroleum orderÃ¢â¬â¢: The US, Britain and the 1954 SaudiÃ¢â¬ Onassis Tanker deal. Diplomacy and Statecraft 11.2 (2000): 137-160. Print. Frank, Andre Gunder. Third World War: A political economy of the Gulf War and the new world order. Third World Quarterly 13.2 (1992): 267-282. Print. Kubursi, Atif A. and Salim Mansur. Oil and the Gulf War: An American Century or A New World Order. Arab Studies Quarterly 15.4 (1993): 1-17. Print. Painter, David S. Oil, Resources, and the Cold War. T (2010):. Leffler, Me lvyn P. and Odd Arne Westad. The Cambridge History of the Cold War 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. 486-506. Print. - . Oil and the American Century. The Journal of American History 99.1 (2012): 24-39. Print.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
American Fiction in the beginning of XX century - Essay Example Moreover, contrasting of the North and the South in America are common points for these authors. This can be explained by the changes in the American society that occurred during this period. After the World War I people were tired of cruelties and violence and have already lost their self-identities. Culture and identity are so closely connected that the restoration of the whole cultures was greatly dependent on the restoration of separate individualÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. There was a need for people to restore their ideals for worshipping. An inner world of an individual was devastated. This can be shown on the example of Sally Carrol from Fitzgerald work, when she imagined Ã¢â¬Å"the Ice PalaceÃ¢â¬ . This place was a spiritual asylum for the main heroine, where she wanted to escape from the scares of the Great War in Europe. Nevertheless, the main heroine fails when she tries to forget about her past in the South and dreams about her future in the future in the North. In the work by Faulkner Ã¢â¬Å"That Evening SunÃ¢â¬ Southerners are also reflected in a negative light. Controversies between white and black people are another logical outcome of constant opposition between the North and the South of America. In the work by Steinbeck historical context is less evident.